11th century

27th November, battle of Peshawar where Mahmud Ghaznavi defeats the Hindu Shahis.

8th August, Death of Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir, ruler of Al-Andalus.

Mahmud captures Bhatiya (Bhera in Pakistan).
Arab raid and sack the Italian city of Pisa.

Mahmud captures Multan and Gaur.

Mahmud defeats the Rajput confederacy.

Abdication of Hisham II in Spain. Accession of Muhammad.
In Spain Muhammad is overthrown by Suleiman.

Hisham II of Spain regains power.

Death of the Buwayhid Baha ud Daula, accession of Sultan ud Daula.

Hisham II of Spain is killed during the riots and Suleiman takes over once again.

Arab Muslim forces conquer Sardinia.

Death of the Zirrid ruler Nasir ud Daula Badis; accession of AI Muizz.
Death of Suleiman in Spain and power is captured by Bani Hamud, Ali ibn Hammud al-Nasir becomes the Caliph in Spain.

22nd March, Ali ibn Hammud al-Nasir is assassinated and Abd al-Rehman IV was elected caliph, but he was in turn ousted by Ali's brother
Al-Qasim Almumin.

Conquest of the Punjab by Mahmud Ghaznavi.

The Buwayhid Sultan ud Daula is Overthrown by Musharaf ud Daula.
13th February, 27th Shawall, 411 Hijri, Death of the Fatimid Caliph AI Hakim, accession of Al Zahir. (IK)
Al-Qasim Almumin is removed from the throne of Spain but he comes back for a short period in 1023.

In Spain assassination of Abdul Rehman V, accession of Muhammad III.
Mehmud of Ghazni captures Somnath in India.

Death of the Buwayhid Mushgraf ud Daula, accession of Jalal ud Daula.
Yahya ibn Ali ibn Hammud al-Mu'tali becomes ruler of Spain second time till 1026.

Power struggle in Spain continues and Hisham III is appointed the last ruler of the Ummayad.

Alp Arsalan is borne.

30th April, Death of Mahmud Ghaznavi.

In Spain deposition of Hisharn III, and end of the Umayyad rule.
Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Qadir, accession of Al Qaim.

Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Zahir, accession of Mustansir.
Tughril Beg is crowned as the king of the Seljuks.

Battle of Dandanqan, the Seljuks defeat the Ghazanavids. Deposition of Masud the Ghazanavid Sultan, accession of Muhammad.
AI Moravids come to power in North Africa.

The Ghazanavid Sultan Muhammad is overthrown by Maudud.

Death of the Buwayhid Jalal ud Daula, accession of Abu Kalijar.

Basasiri captures power in Baghdad.

The Zirids in North Africa repudiate allegiance to the Fatimid and transfer allegiance to-the Abbasids.

Death of the Buwayhid Abu Kalijar, accession of Malik Ur Rahim.

Yusuf bin Tashfin comes to power in the Maghrib (Morocco).

Tughril Beg overthrows the Buwayhids.

Basasiri recaptures power in Baghdad, deposes Al Qaim and offers allegiance to the Fatimid Caliph.

Tughril Beg recaptures power in Baghdad; al Qaim is restored as the Caliph.

Ibrahim becomes the Sultan of Ghazni.
Yusuf bin Tashfin founds the city of Marrakesh.
The Zirids abandon their capital Ashir and establish their capital at Bougie.

Death of the Zirid ruler AI Muizz, accession of Tamin.

5th September, 8th Ramadan, 455 Hijri, Death of the Seljuk Sultan Tughril Beg, accession of Alp Arsalan. (IK)

The Seljuk Turks conquer Armenia.

26th August, battle of Manzikert between Byzantine Empire and the Seljuks. It resulted in a victory for the Seljuks; Emperor Romanos IV was
captured by the Muslims.

Seljuk Turks conquer Ankara.
Death of Alp Arsalan, accession of Malik Shah.

5th April, 15th Shabaan, 467 Hijri, Death of the Abbasid Caliph AI Qaim, accession of AI Muqtadi. (IK)

El Cid, leaves Alfonso IV of Castile, enters the service of the Moorish king of the northeast Spanish city of Zaragosa, al-Mu'tamin.

The A1 Moravids conquer Algeria.

25th October, Muslims lose control of Toledo (Spain) to Alfonso VI.

23rd October, battle of Zallakha. Yousaf Ibn Tashfeen defeated Alfonso VI of Castile.
The AI Moravids defeat the Christians in Spain.
Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Suleiman, accession of Kilij Arsalan.

Yusuf Ibn Tashfin, King of the Almoravids, captures Granada.

The Normans conquer the island of Sicily; end of the Muslim rule.
Cordoba (Qurtuba) is captured by the Almoravids.

19th November, 15th Shawal, 485 Hijri, Death of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah, accession of Mahmud. (IK)

Death of Mahmud; accession of Barkiaruk.
26th January, 5th Moharram, 487 Hijri, Death of the Abbasid Caliph AI Muqtadi, accession of Mustahzir. (IK)
May, El Cid captures Valencia from the Muslims.

18th November, Pope Urban II opens the Council of Clermont and requests for a crusade against Muslims.
27th November, Pope Urban II calls for the first crusade publicly.

April, the first of the four armies' crusade arrives in Constantinople.
6th May, Crusaders moving through the Rhine Valley massacre Jews in Speyer.
18th May, Crusaders massacre Jews in Worms, Germany.
27th May, Crusaders massacre Jews in Mainz, Germany.
June, Crusaders led by Peter the Hermit sack Semin and Belgrade, forcing Byzantine troops to flee to Nish.
3rd July, Peter the Hermit's Peasants' Crusade meets Byzantine forces at Nish. Although Peter is victorious.
1st August, The Peasants' Crusade, which had departed from Europe that Spring, is shipped over the Bosporus by Emperor Alexius I Comnenus
of Constantinople.
December, the last of the four planned Crusader armies arrives at Constantinople, bringing the total numbers to approximately 50,000 knights and
500,000 footmen.

19th June, Crusaders captured Antioch after a long siege.

28th June, Battle of Orontes.

7th July, Siege of Jerusalem begins by the Crusades.
15th July, Crusade captures Jerusalem.
12th August, battle of Escalon between Fatimids of Egypt and the First Crusade. It resulted in Christians' victory but they didn't hold Escalon
due to feud between the brothers.

12th century

Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Mustaali, accession of Al Aamir.
August, Battle of Heraclia, Turks under Kilij Arslan I are able to halt the advance of the final waves of Crusading armies from Europe.
September, First Battle of Ramleh, an Egyptian army under emir Sa'ad ed-Daula al-Qawasi is defeated by Baldwin I.

Valencia is captured by the Almoravids. April, Second Battle of Ramleh: Baldwin I rides out with Stephen of Blois and Stephen of Burgundy.
Most Crusaders are killed and a few escape, including Baldwin who manages to reach Arsulf.

Death of the Seljuk Sultan Barkiaruk, accession Of Muhammad.
August, The Egyptians try third time to take control of Jerusalem but they were unsuccessful.

Death of the AI Motavid Yusuf bin Tashfin.

Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Kilij Arsalan, succession of Malik Shah.

Death of the Zirid ruler Tamin, accession of Yahya.

12th July, Crusaders capture the harbour city of Tripoli (Palestine).

May, The Franks attack Muslim defences in Beirut.

15th February, The Knights Hospitaller receives formal papal recognition as a separate and independent monastic order.

Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah. Accession of Rukn ud Din Masud.

Death of the Seljuk Sultan Muhammad; accession of Mahmud II.
6t August, 15th Rabi A-Sani, 512 Hijri, Death of the Abbasid Caliph Mustahzir, accession of Mustarshid. (IK)
December, In Spain the Christians capture Saragossa.

27th June, Battle of the Field of Blood (Ager Sanguinis): Muslim forces defeat Roger of Antioch and a Frankish army at Aleppo.

Death of the Fatimid Caliph AI Aamir, accession of AI Hafiz.

14th February, Crusaders, mostly Franks and Venetians, begin a siege of Tyre.

Imad ud Din Zangi establishes the Zangi rule In Mosul.

Death of the Khawarzam Shah Qutb ud Din Muhammad; accession of Atsiz.

Death of the Seljuk Sultan Mahmud II, accession of Tughril Beg II.

Assassination of the Abbasid Caliph Mustarshid, accession of Al Rashid.
Death of the Seljuk Sultan Tughril Beg II, accession of Masud.

30th March, Medieval Jewish scholar Moses Maimonides is born in Cordoba.
29th August, 17th Zu Al-Kada, 529 Hijri, Death of the Abbasid Caliph Mustarshid, accession of Mansur Mustarshid.

16th August, Zu AL-Kada, 530 Hijri, Deposition of Caliph Rahid.
12th September, 12th Zu Al-Hajj, 530 Hijri, Al-Mukta becomes new Caliph.

Birth of Salah-al-Din Yusuf ibn-Ayyub (Salah al-Din, Saladin).
18th May, 6th Ramadan, 532 Hijri, Death of Rashid, Almukta becomes new Caliph.

26th July, Battle of Ourique, Afonso I Henriques defeats a large Almoravid force and is crowned king of Portugal.

24th December, Imad ud Din Zangi captures Edessa from the Christians.

15th September, Death of Imad ud Din Zangi, accession of Nur ud Din Zangi.

In the Maghrib, AI Moravids overthrown by the Al Mohads under Abul Mumin.
October, Lisbon is captured by Crusaders and Portuguese forces under the command of Don Afonso Henriques, first king of Portugal.
25th October, Second Battle of Dorylaeum, German Crusaders under Conrad III stops at Dorylaeum to rest and is destroyed by Masud I.

End of the Zirid rule' in North Africa.
Count Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona, with the aid of an English fleet, captures the Moor city of Tortosa.
28th July, Crusaders are forced to withdraw from their siege of Damascus after only a week, partly as a result of disagreement between
Baldwin III, Conrad III, and Louis VII).

Death of the Fatimid Caliph AI Hafiz, accession of AI Zafar.
A Crusading army under Raymond of Antioch is destroyed by Nur ad-Din Mahmud bin Zengi (son of Imad ad-Din Zengi.

Death of the Seljuk Sultan Masud, accession of Malik Shah II.
Hamadid rule extinguished in North Africa.

Death of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah I1, accession of Muhammad II.

Death of the Fatimid Caliph AI Zafar, accession of AI Faiz.
25th April, Nur Al-Din Zengi takes control of Damascus thus brining whole of Syria under his control.

Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Rukn ud Din Masid, accession of Arsalan II.

Death of the Seljuk Sultan Muhammad II, accession of Gulaiman.

12th March, 2nd Rabi Al-Awal, 555 Hijri, Death of the Abbasid Caliph AI Mukta, accession of Al Mustanjid.
Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Faiz, accession of Al Azzid.

Death of the Seljuk Suleiman, accession of Arsalan Shah.

Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abul Mumin, accession of Abu Yaqub Yusuf.

20th December, 9th Rabi Al-Sani, 566 Hijri, Death of the Abbasid Caliph Mustanjid, accession of Al Mustazii. (IK)
Saladin captures the Crusader-controlled city of Eilat, located on the Red Sea.

Death of the Fatimid Caliph AI Azzid.
Moharram, 567 Hijri, End of the Fatimids.
Salah ud Din founds the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt.

Death of the Khawarzam Shah Arsalan, accession of Sultan Shah.

The Khawarzam Shah Sultan Shah is overthrown by Tukush Shah.

15th May Nur Al-Din Zengi dies and Salah ud Din annexes Syria.
28th October, Saladin captures Damascus and becomes the ruler of both Egypt and Damascus.

The Ghurids defeat the Guzz Turks and occupy Ghazni.

Death of the Seljuk Sultan Arsalan Shah, accession of Tughril Beg III.
August, Saladin besieges the city of Masyaf.
17th September, Battle of Myriocephalum: Muslims defeat the Byzantines under Manuel I Comnenus Megas and capture the city of Dorylaeum.

25th November, battle of Montgisard between King Bladwin IV of Jerusalem and Saladin.

Zu Al-Kada, 575 Hijri, Death of the Abbasid Caliph AI Mustazaii, accession of AI Nasir.

Al-Salah (son of Nur Al-Din Zengi) dies and Saladin took control of whole of Syria.

Saladin captures the city of Aleppo.

Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abu Yaqub Yusuf, accession of Abu Yusuf Yaqub.

The Ghurids overthrow the Ghaznavaids in the Punjab.
Reynald of Chantillon breaks a truce with Saladin by attacking a Muslim caravan and taking several prisoners, including a sister of Saladin.
This infuriates the Muslim leader who vows to kill Reynald with his own hands.

26th June, Saladin launches his invasion of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem by crossing into Palestine.
4th July, battle of Hattin between Salah ud Din and the Crusaders, Massive win for Salah ud Din.
8th July, Saladin and his forces arrive at Acre. The city capitulates to him.
29th July, The city of Sidon surrenders to Saladin.
9th August, The city of Beirut is captured by Saladin.
18th September - 2nd October, siege and capture of Jerusalem by Muslim forces under Salah ud Din.

First Battle of Tarain between the Rajputs and the Ghurids.

Second battle of Tarain (Haryana - India).
June, Third Crusades tries to take Jerusalem from the Muslims but fails.
Construction starts on Qutub Minar (Delhi - India).

3rd March, Death of Salah ud Din, accession of Al Aziz.

Occupation of Delhi by the Muslims.
End of the Seljuk rule.

18th July, battle of Al-Arak (Alarcos). Al-Mansur defeated Alfonso VIII of Castile.

Construction of Qutub Minar is completed.

Death of the Khawarzam Shah Tukush Shah; accession of Ala ud Din.
Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abu Yusuf Yaqub, accession of Muhammad Nasir.
Conquest of Northern India and Bengal by the Ghurids.

13th century

Death of the Ghurid Sultan Ghias ud Din; accession of Mahmud.
The Fourth Crusade is launched.

6th April, the Crusaders launch an attack on the Christian city of Constantinople.
17th July, Constantinople falls to the Crusaders.

Shahab ud Din Ghuri defeated by the Ghuzz Turks.
The Fourth Crusade sacks Constantinople.

Death of Shahab ud Din Ghuri. Qutb ud Din Aibek crowned king in Lahore.

Assassination of the Ghurid Sultan Mahmud, accession of Sam.
Death of Qutb ud Din Aibek, accession of Aram Shah in India.

End of the Ghurid rule, their territories annexed by the Khawarzam Shahs.
In India Aram Shah overthrown by Iltutmish.

16th July, battle of AI Uqab (Las Navas de Tolosa) in Spain, end of the AI Mohad rule in Spain. The AI Mohads suffer defeat by the Christians
in Spain at the Al-Uqba. The AI Mohad Sultan An Nasir escapes to Morocco where he dies soon after. Accession of his son Yusuf who takes
over title of AI Mustansir.
Children's Crusade is launched

The Banu Marin under their leader Abdul Haq occupies the north eastern part of Morocco.

The Banu Marin under their leader Abdul Haq occupies north eastern part of Morocco. The AI Mohads suffer defeat by the Marinids at the
battle of Nakur.

The Marinids suffer defeat in the battle fought on the banks of the Sibu River. Abdul Haq is killed and the Marinids evacuate Morocco.

Death of the Ayyubid ruler AI Adil, accession of AI Kamil.
The Marinids return to Morocco under their leader Usman and occupy Fez.

Death of the Khawarzam Shah Ala ud Din, accession of Jalal ud Din.

September, Crusaders are driven out of the city of Damietta by Malik Al-Kamil.

Death of the Zangi ruler Nasir ud Din Mahmud, power captured by Badr ud Din Lulu.

1223 Death of the Al Mohad ruler Muntasir, accession of Abdul Wahid.
Death of Yusuf AI Mustansir, accession of Abdul Wahid in Morocco.
In Spain a brother of Yusuf declares his independence and assumes the title of AI Adil.
In Spain Abu Muhammad overthrows AI Adil. AI Adil escapes to Morocco and overthrows Abdul Wahid.

Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abdul Wahid, accession of Abdullah Adil.

13th July, 15th Rajab, 623 Hijri, Death of the Abbasid Caliph AI Nasir, accession of AI Mustansir. (IK)

Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abdullah Adil, accession of Mustasim.
Assassination of Al Adil, accession of his son Yahya who assumes the throne under the name of Al Mustasim.
8th August, Death of Genghis Khan.

The Sixth Crusade is launched.

Death of the AI Mohad ruler Mustasim, accession of Idris.
Abu Muhammad dies in Spain and is succeeded by Al Mamun. AI Mamun invades Morocco with the Christian help. Yahya is defeated and
power is captured by Al Mamun.
18th February, Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen signs a treaty with Sultan Malik Al-Kamil of Egypt and thus acquires controls of Jerusalem. Nazareth and Bethlehem from Muslim forces.

End of the Khawarzam Shah rule.

Death of the AI Mohad ruler Idris, accession, of Abdul Wahid II.

Death of the Ayyubid ruler AI Kamil, accession of AI Adil.

Death of Delhi Sultan Iltutmish. Accession of Rukn ud Din Feroz Shah.
The city of Cordoba falls to the Christian kingdom of Castile.

Accession of Razia Sultana as Delhi Sultan.

Mohammad Ibn Nasr establishes Emirate of Granada in Spain.
28th September, James I of Aragon takes Valencia from the Almohads.
Malik Al-Kamil, Sultan of Egypt and nephew of Saladin, dies.
Death of Ar-Rashid; accession of his son Abu Said.

Death of Razia Sultana, accession of Bahram Shah.

Death of Bahram Shah, accession of Ala ud Din Masud Shah as Delhi Sultan.
Death of the AI Mohad rules Abdul Wahid, accession of Abu Hasan.
Death of the Abbasid Caliph Mustansir, accession of Mustasim.

Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abdul Walid II, accession of

The Al Mohads defeat the Marinids at the battle of Abu Bayash. The Marinids evacuate Morocco.
17th October, Battle of LaForbie, a large army of Crusaders is utterly destroyed by Muslims near Gaza. Egyptian forces are commanded by

The Muslims reconquer Jerusalem.

Death of the Delhi Sultan Ala ud Din Masud Shah, accession of Nasir ud Din Mahmud Shah.

July, Castilian forces start siege of Seville.

Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abul Hasan, accession of Omar Murtaza. Abu Said attacks Tlemsen, but is ambushed and killed; accession of
his son Murtada.
23rd November, Ferdinand III of Castile captures Seville, Spain.
The Seventh Crusade is launched.

The Marinids return to Morocco, and occupy a greater part thereof.
8th February, Battle of al-Mansurah, Crusaders led by King Louis IX of France against Muslims in Egypt.
6th April, Battle of Fariskur: King Louis IX is captured along with his army and ransomed in exchange for the surrender of Damietta. This is the
final battle in the Seventh Crusade.

10th February, The Mongols sack Baghdad. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Mustasim. Fall of Baghdad and an end of the Abbasid caliphate.
The Mongol II-Khans under Halaku establish their rule in Iran and Iraq with the capital at Maragah. Berek Khan the Muslim chief of the Golden
Horde protests against the treatment meted out to the Abbasid Caliph and withdraws his Contingent from Baghdad.
15th February, 9th Safar, 656 Hijri, Entered into Baghdad.

Abu Abdullah the Hafsid ruler declares himself as the Caliph and assumes the name of AI Mustamir.

23rd October, Baibars, a Mamluk leader, is named Sultan of Egypt.
3rd September, Battle of Ayn Jalut between Mamluks and the Mongols. Mongols are defected for the first time.

Death of Bahauddin Zikriya in Multan who is credited with the introduction of the Suhrawardi Sufi order in the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent.

Death of Heulgou. Death of Fariduddin Ganj Shakkar the Chishti saint of the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent.

Death of Berek Khan the first ruler of the Golden Horde to be converted to Islam. The eighth crusade. The crusaders invade Tunisia. Failure of
the crusade.

Malik ul Salih establishes the first Muslim state of Samudra Pasai in Indonesia.
Murtada seeks the help of the Christians, and the Spaniards invade Morocco.
The Marinids drive away the Spaniards from Morocco.
Assassination of Murtada; accession of Abu Dabbas.

18th May, he Mamluks of Egypt under the command of Sultan Baibars takes the city of Antioch.

Abu Dabbas is overthrown by the Marinides, end of the rule of the Al Mohads. In Morocco, the Marinids come to power in Morocco
under Abu Yaqub.

Death of Mansa Wali the founder of the Muslim rule in Mali.
The Eighth Crusade is launched.

8th April, Mamluk sultan Baibars conquers the Krak des Chevaliers, headquarters of the Knights Hospitaller in Syria.

Death of Muhammad I the founder of the state of Granada. Yaghmurason invades Morocco but meets a reverse at the battle

Death of Jalaluddin Rumi.

Death of Nasiruddin Tusi. The Marinids wrest Sijilmasa from the Zayenids. Ninth crusade under Edward I of England. The crusade ends in fiasco
and Edward returns to England.

1st July, Death of Baybars.

Battle of Hims. Osman, founder of Ottoman dynasty is born.

Death of Yaghmurasan. Accession of his son Usman.

Death of Ghiasuddin Balban.
Death of Abu Yusuf Yaqub.
Bughra Khan declares his independence in Bengal under the name of Nasiruddin.

26th April, Mamluks from Egypt capture the city of Tripoli.

End of the slave dynasty Jalaluddin Khilji comes into power.
Usman embarks on a career of conquest and by 1290 C.E.
Most of the Central Maghreb is conquered by the Zayanids.

18th May, Mamluks of Egypt capture last Crusader stronghold of Acre.
July, The Mamluks capture Beirut and Sidon.

Mongol leader Ghazan Khan converts to Islam, the very first Mongol leader to do so.

Mongols invade Syria. The Marinids besiege Tlemsen the capital of the Zayanids.
Osman declares the independence of his small principality from the Seljuk sultanate of Konya.
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